Machine Vision System

Machine vision system is a sensor used in the robots for viewing and recognizing an object with the help of a computer. It is mostly used in the industrial robots for inspection purposes. This system is also known as artificial vision or computer vision. It has several components such as a camera, digital computer, digitizing hardware, and an interface hardware & software. The machine vision process includes three important tasks, namely:

  • Sensing & Digitizing Image Data
  • Image Processing & Analysis
  • Applications

Sensing & Digitizing Image Data:

A camera is used in the sensing and digitizing tasks for viewing the images. It will make use of special lighting methods for gaining better picture contrast. These images are changed into the digital form, and it is known as the frame of the vision data. A frame grabber is incorporated for taking digitized image continuously at 30 frames per second. Instead of scene projections, every frame is divided as a matrix. By performing sampling operation on the image, the number of pixels can be identified. The pixels are generally described by the elements of the matrix. A pixel is decreased to a value for measuring the intensity of light. As a result of this process, the intensity of every pixel is changed into the digital value and stored in the computer’s memory.

Image Processing & Analysis:

In this function, the image interpretation and data reduction processes are done. The threshold of an image frame is developed as a binary image for reducing the data. The data reduction will help in converting the frame from raw image data to the feature value data. The feature value data can be calculated via computer programming. This is performed by matching the image descriptors like size and appearance with the previously stored data on the computer.

The image processing and analysis function will be made more effective by training the machine vision system regularly. There are several data collected in the training process like length of perimeter, outer & inner diameter, area, and so on. Here, the camera will be very helpful to identify the match between the computer models and new objects of feature value data.


Some of the important applications of the machine vision system in the robots are:

  • Inspection
  • Orientation
  • Part Identification
  • Location

There are some of the future improvements researches are going on for providing highly-developed machine vision system in the complicated areas.

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